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The Solar cell is a device which converts light energy, directly from the sunlight into electric energy. It is also called as the photovoltaic cell by the mechanism of photovoltaic effect which is a combination of physical and chemical reactions.
It is basically a semiconductor material such as silicon which has a capacity of absorbing sunlight. This single solar cell combined with multiple numbers of solar cells forms solar modules which then called solar panels. This array of solar cells converts sunlight into direct current. It is so expensive.
CONVENTIONAL TECHNIQUE OF SOLAR CELL-
Whenever a light ray strikes on the material, some portion are reflected and some portion gets transmitted and the rest are absorbed by the material. So when the semiconductor material like silicon absorbs light energy from the sun which causes a number of free electrons. This is the fundamental reason of producing electricity by the photovoltaic effect. The photovoltaic cell is the basic unit of an entire system to produce electricity.
NEW TECHNIQUE OF SOLAR CELL-
Photovoltaic energy offers a new method to produce electricity. But the capacity depends heavily on the absorbing materials that use. A new lead based halide perovskite so- called polaron excitations with very high efficiencies.
The results found two main dynamics,
The charge separation, flow of electrical charges when sunlight reaches the perovskite light absorber takes place via electron transfer in both junctions with titanium dioxide.
Secondly, it found that charge recombination was significantly slower for titanium dioxide. Charge recombination is the process of degrading the energy into heat and thus it reduces the overall efficiency of the solar cell. Lead halide perovskite has unique semiconductor material properties in solar cells, which allows very fast transfer of both charges of positive and electrons at two junctions simultaneously transports their respective charges effectively. It shows a clear advantage of titanium dioxide and its transporting materials.
PEROVSKITE SOLAR CELL-
Perovskite is a calcium titanium oxide. Its chemical formula is CaTiO3 which is a combination of calcium, titanium, and oxygen. The perovskite structure is a cubic cell with titanium atoms at the corners, oxygen atoms at the midpoints of edges and calcium atoms in the center.
Perovskite possesses many interesting and intriguing properties. They are,
- Charge ordering,
- Spin-dependent transport,
- High thermopower
- Interplay of structural, magnetic and transport properties
It has to be cooled in the laboratory to around minus 35 degree Celsius, for the effect to takes place. If it is to used in different practical applications, it is necessary to provide ordered polaron states at very high temperatures. So far the measurements were made in a carefully organized material in order to explain the principle of the effect.
APPLICATION OF PEROVSKITE-
It has both practical and theoretical applications. Its potential applications are
- Fuel cells,
- Solar cells
- Memory devices,
- Spintronics applications.
ADVANTAGES OF PEROVSKITE CELL-
Unlike other solar panels, those made with perovskite absorbs most of the solar energy and it works in various atmospheric conditions apart from only in direct sunlight. Solar panels made of perovskite will be more 40 percent cheaper and 50 percent more efficient unlike solar panels using today. Currently using commercial products which are used to generate solar power such as silicon or any thin film based technologies are costly because it is processed under vacuum based techniques. It works in diffused conditions. It could also be used to charge gadgets like tablets, mobiles, and laptops.